Does Stockfish calculate further ithe longer you don't make a move?

For example if you wait 1,5,10 minutes or lnger before making a move.

I’ve waited until stockfish at it current highest level (as of August 13, 2017) can “think”. It finally gives you a response. And in chess as in real life, once it has made it’s move and committed it’s act, it cannot retrieve it. Remember this, ONLY humans and G-D can truly calculate. The machine is just created by us.